Intellect is the profound quality intrinsic to human beings. It is the limitless capacity of the human brain that has transformed our world. Humans have created machines and are endeavoring hard to endow them with human-like intelligence called Artificial Intelligence (AI). Researchers, scientists, and everyone concerned with artificial intelligence share a dream of creating machines that can think and act independently. Humans have made significant advancements in programming computers, machines, and robots to carry out explicit instructions. However, the goal of AI is to create machines imbued with five essential traits of human intelligence.
Learning is a fundamental trait of human intelligence that pertains to acquire knowledge from a variety of sources like books, mentors, situations, and experiences. Learning can start with the trial and error method. As the brain collects a vast amount of knowledge over a while, the trial and error method changes into established practices in the so-called experienced circumstances.
Learning can also be done through audio, video, image recognition, relating to past events, and observing the ordinary day-to-day happening. All this information gets stored in the brain. When a new situation arises, the human brain processes this data to develop possible solutions for the present problem termed generalized learning. Scientists have trained machines to learn like humans. Machine learning involves supervised, unsupervised, and reinforced learning. Machines learning involves tremendous data mining and data processing.
The reasoning is the ability of the human brain to draw inferences and reach judgments based on past knowledge, observed events, present circumstances, and the nature of the problem. The reasoning ability to process information and reach conclusions for finding solutions can be inductive and deductive.
In inductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached based on generalized observations and occurrences. This generalization may be true or false. For example, in science, tentative models are built and tested. These models stand valid until such a situation arises wherein they fail to provide explanations, which raises the need to restructure and revise these models.
Deductive reasoning depends on facts, figures, and logic. Mathematicians build elaborate theorems from a set of axioms and rules. In deductive reasoning, the inferences drawn guarantee the truth of the conclusion. There is a significant application of deductive reasoning in routine activities. AI has also made significant advances in programming computers to apply their algorithms to deduce situation-specific solutions. It is not enough what we are searching for is to develop an AI system that can apply its logic, not to specific but generalize circumstances as humans do.
It refers to the capacity of the human brain to identify the cause of a particular problem, study it from various angles, devise at least two or three solutions best suited to the problem and then decide which method to apply for achieving the best possible results. If plan A fails, humans will use plan B; such adaptation is a unique feature of human intelligence not found in animals or machines. In addition, the knowledge and experience gained in solving one problem are also stored and retrieved by the human brain for future use.
Scientists have made great strides in equipping AI systems to solve numerous and diverse problems, especially the situation-specific wherein AI searches through a range of possible actions to accomplish a pre-programmed goal or objective. AI can also generalized problem solving to a certain extent, such as learning the sequence of moves in a board game. For example, Google’s DeepMind Alphago defeated a world champion Go player Lee Sedol. This Chinese game Go is much more complex as compared to chess. There are more than 200 moves in this game.
Human beings possess sensory organs which help them to perceive their environment from different angles. Humans acquire perceptive knowledge through visual, audio, touch, smell, taste, which builds a complete picture in the human mind. It helps us to either enjoy or detest the given experience or environment.
In AI, perception capabilities are developed by using optical sensors and logically organizing data. Various delivery robots are highly equipped to roam around in warehouses and carry out programmed instructions. For example, Amazon bought Kiva Robotics in 2012 and employed Kiva robots for various functions in its warehouses.
Language is a highly distinctive attribute of human intelligence that has set humans apart from all other earthlings. Humans can read, write, speak, and understand verbal entities in different languages compared to bird and animal calls. Interactive chatbots are programmed to respond to human questions and replies like humans, but they do not understand the verbal entities or their content. These responses are the products of processing the scripted data and providing answers in a severely restricted format.
Language is a living force. Harnessing linguistic abilities have made it possible for humans to achieve significant progress in diverse fields. Language is learned not only through the learning processes in schools and other institutions, but humans learn a major part of the language by being a part of a particular linguistic community. AI has not produced such systems wherein computers or robots can talk among themselves or boast of being a participant of a computerized linguistic community. In language recognition, artificial intelligence has achieved an accuracy of about 95%, but here language is a function and not a cumulative consequence of a social system.
The above discussion of fundamental traits of human intelligence throws light on the goals and aspirations of AI scientists. The proponents of AI strive zealously and dream of a future when AI-powered machines will exhibit these distinct qualities of human intelligence.